No matter how the economy shifts, some jobs remain critical. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning installation and maintenance personnel, better known as HVAC workers, are essential for commercial and residential properties. An HVAC training program can provide a solid grounding in the fundamentals you'll need for a career in the field, but learning more about HVAC careers before you choose your school is important. Many HVAC schools offer HVACR training: What does this mean? The extra letter stands for refrigeration, a technology that overlaps HVAC in many areas. While some refrigeration technicians work on the appliances familiar in every home, the majority work for professional kitchens, schools, hospitals and anywhere else that refrigeration is important. What are some HVAC and HVACR career options? Like any field, HVAC has a wide variety of specializations. If you have a background or interest in engineering, you might be involved with designing systems or improving HVAC technology. Are you a natural at sales and marketing? If so, then you may work as a vendor. Installation technicians build new systems or add ventilation to existing buildings. Large office buildings and commercial properties often employ maintenance staff to keep their complex ventilation system in good shape. Other HVAC workers prefer to own their own repair company and serve a variety of small businesses and homes. Specializing can add value to what you have to offer. Trained HVACR personnel are equipped to deal with the special needs of a hospital or manufacturing plants. Supermarkets and restaurants rely on their refrigeration systems, giving refrigeration installation and maintenance specialists other industries to specialize in. Experts who specialize in retro-fitting old homes with new central heating or air conditioning systems also have highly marketable skills. What makes someone a good HVACR career candidate? Successful HVACR personnel typically work well with their hands and take satisfaction in building things. Manual dexterity is important for anyone who repairs and maintains equipment, and that includes ventilation and refrigeration systems. Many HVAC jobs also require physical strength; you'll have equipment to help you maneuver bulky items such as refrigerators, but you'll still find a strong back an asset. If you're planning to open your own HVAC repair service, you'll need talents beyond your mechanical aptitude. Excellent customer service, efficient time management and sharp troubleshooting skills are vital for self-employed HVAC workers. Someone hoping to start their own business might consider taking some business administration courses along with their specialized HVAC training. What's the earning potential for HVAC workers? As in any industry, locale, demand, specialization, and education influence earning potential for HVACR workers. Entry-level workers and general maintenance personnel typically earn toward the lower end of the scale. Designers, distributors and specialists have higher earning potential. What education do HVACR workers need? Your educational needs depend on your specialty, but an accredited HVAC school is a good place to start. HVAC schools offer a range of options from six-month courses to two-year degree programs. Military training can also lead to HVACR careers, and these roles also involve practical experience. Even after graduation and certification, you'll spend time in an apprenticeship during which your earnings will be at the lower end of the pay scale. It can take years to master your career, particularly if you specialize. What challenges can an HVAC worker expect on the job? No matter what your role in the industry, expect pressure as an HVAC worker. Your customers want speedy service whether you're restoring their air conditioning on a hot day or installing a new refrigeration unit for a hospital's blood bank. You'll probably face uncomfortable conditions, too: close quarters, uncomfortable temperatures and bad weather are common challenges for HVAC personnel. As with any work that requires physical exertion, HVAC maintenance and repair jobs can be dangerous. You'll need to practice good safety procedures for dealing with high voltage equipment, chemical coolants and heat exhaustion. What's the ceiling on HVAC careers? If you're willing to continue your education and have a strong natural aptitude for the work, you'll have plenty of advancement opportunities. Everything from owning your own business to developing ecologically sustainable cooling systems for large multinational corporations can start with HVAC training. Caitlin Murphy writes on behalf of Redstone College offering degrees in HVAC, Aviation and Wind Energy.
As an education consultant observing instruction across content areas, grade bands, and schools, I have seen A LOT of instruction, both good and bad. While most teachers teach from a place of caring and compassion, the simple mistakes that I see teachers repeatedly making are undermining the overall impact that they could be having on learning especially when one considers the cumulative effect of poor teaching practices, across multiple teachers, on any one student.
Don’t get tangled up in this trap. Start upping your teaching game by canceling the following five teaching practices:
Using The Standard As The Lesson Objective
I sometimes see teachers using specific Common Core State Standards as the learning objective for an entire unit of study. For example, I once saw a fourth-grade teacher use “Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meaning (CCSS ELA-LITERACY L.4.5)" as the learning objective across many days of learning. This is an academically rigorous standard to be sure. However, as there are many types of figurative language, how does the teacher know they are meeting the precise intent of this standard unless they break down this standard into its component parts? Could each part then be a lesson/daily objective?
To answer, I suggest teachers draw upon the work of Larry Ainsworth in unwrapping standards. In a nutshell, Ainsworth’s model for deconstructing standards has educators identifying each concept (nouns) and skill (verbs) embedded within each standard to ensure that the complete intent of the standard is understood. More about the model can be found here.
Dumbing Down Objectives
My blood boiled over one day when a teacher told me that his students could not possibly meet learning objectives and/or success criteria that asked students to synthesize, evaluate, and/or create since his students were lower functioning. I have no doubt that this teacher was correct in saying that some of his students would, indeed, struggle in meeting higher-level success criteria. However, what then was this teacher doing to scaffold the learning so his lower-functioning students could succeed in meeting such objectives? First, develop lesson objectives with high achievement in mind so that high-performing students are not held back by low-performing students. Then, consider the scaffolds—such as one-on-one and small group direct instruction—that will be provided to lower-achieving students so they, too, can achieve rigorous objectives.
In developing rigorous learning objectives, those that place the cognitive lift on students, I recommend teachers use two tools—a Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Wheel and Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix. The DOK Wheel will help educators to craft learning objectives inclusive of increasing levels of student challenge from a DOK Level One (Student Recall) through to a DOK Level Four (Extended Student Thinking). The Matrix will help teachers to compare their learning objectives, as currently written, to examples of those at varying levels of cognitive complexity so that these objectives may be rewritten to reflect higher levels of cognitive complexity. The Matrix is available for both humanities and math/science content areas.
Bonus Hack for Writing Objectives: When teachers write the learning objective into their guided practice slide decks, it is often only on the front slide. How can students refer to it/follow along if they can’t see it? Instead, include the objective on all slides or, better yet, write it on the class board.
Less is more. If a teacher’s guided practice drones on and on, as their coach, I sometimes ask if the teacher can call on a student to repeat and/or summarize what was said. Sometimes the student can but, other times, as the student begins to explain, they become confused. This is precisely why I ask this of teachers. If students are to retain information, research shows that there need to be breaks in long lectures. Chunk the learning. Allow a quick turn and talk so students can process learning before proceeding to ask students to repeat and/or summarize information.
On a related note, teachers should stop asking “Any questions?” as a matter of pro forma politeness before speeding along on the bullet train that is their lecture. Most students will not admit that they do not understand something unless it is teased from them. Instead, cold call and use other strategies such as polling, individual whiteboards, and signaling cards. And, when teachers do stop talking to ask questions of students, they can ensure that those questions are cognitively rigorous using this question stem tool.
Telling Students To Take Notes Instead Of Showing Them How
If I had a quarter for each time I heard “take notes.” What does this mean? One of the practices in which I engage when observing classes is to look over at what students are doing and the notes they are taking; the level of detail and amount of relevant information can vary widely. Instead, a good practice is to adopt a standard note-taking format like Cornell Notes. In adopting a standard format, teachers can scaffold notes, build in essential questions, and have students summarize their learning—all best practices discussed in this article. Further, students can assess the quality of not only their notes but that of peers and use these notes in the development of student-generated study guides.
One scaffolding technique that I suggest teachers use with Cornell Notes is to include unit-related vocabulary with which students may be struggling and/or may not yet have been exposed. Often, when students leave questions blank on assessments, it can be because students do not understand what is being asked of them because of the vocabulary being used. In addition to highlighting key vocabulary on Cornell Notes, consider expanding a student’s knowledge of related vocabulary through the use of varied Vocabulary CODE activities as well as tiered vocabulary in each content area.
Taking Class Time To Have Students Complete Worksheets
A standard practice that I have seen, when teachers are afraid to release control, is for students to complete worksheets independently and silently in class. First, teachers should consider if work needs to be done in class or, after modeling one or two examples of what students are to do, the rest of the worksheet can be done at home so that class time can be used for discussion of the work. Learning together builds creativity, blends individual strengths, and enhances the sense of collective ownership.
However, teachers are wise in anticipating where learning can go wrong, and there can be many reasons why students may not be focused during student-to-student-based activities. Still, the solution for most attention problems resides with the teacher. If students are unfocused and discussing unrelated matters during group work, give them the questions to discuss up front. If students can’t engage in discussions with one another appropriately, give them discussion/accountable talking stems. If some students are doing all the work while their teammates stand about idly, assign individual roles within each group as well as have students self-assess their level of contribution as well as peer assess that of their teammates. Also, provide exemplars of quality work and allow students some choice in how they demonstrate proficiency (the product) beyond that of a worksheet. There are also varied discussion protocols that can be used to differentiate the process through which students talk collaboratively about the content.
Word To The Wise
These are, without a doubt, some of the most common mistakes that I have seen educators make regardless of the amount of time that they have been in the profession. I, myself, was not immune from making these same missteps in the classroom. Still, being forewarned is forearmed and hopefully an awareness of these common pratfalls, along with a knowledge of the tools that can be used to navigate around them, will help ensure that not a moment of class time is wasted to inefficiency.
Please feel free to reach out to the author at John Schembari, Ed.D. | LinkedIn.